BLACK 🌍 HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : MARCUS MOSIAH GARVEY JR.

 

GARVEY SUIT

BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr., was born on August 17, 1887, in St.Ann’s Bay , Jamaica , to Sarah Jane Richards and Marcus Mosiah Garvey Sr., he was the youngest of eleven children, but only Marcus and his sister Indiana would survive to adulthood.

Garvey’s father owned a massive personal library, it was from this library where a young Garvey would first be educated. The young Garvey would continue his early education at some of St.Ann’s Bay elementary schools, it would be at those schools, Garvey would experience racism for the first time in his life.

In 1907, while working in the printing industry, Garvey would get his first taste of political activism, when he took part in a printer’s strike, the strike was  not a success , but it sparked his interest in politics and activism.

In 1910, Garvey would leave Jamaica and travel throughout central America, first working as a timekeeper on a banana plantation in Costa Rica, Garvey would move on to work as an editor for a newspaper called La Nacionale  and then later that year in 1911, Garvey would move to Panama, where he edited a biweekly Newspaper.

Garvey would return to Jamaica in 1912.

From 1912 to 1914, Garvey would live in London, England , where he would attend Birkbeck College and take classes philosophy and law classes. Garvey would also work for the African Times and Orient Review, published by Duse Mohamed Ali. Garvey would also be influenced by many civil rights activists of his time and was a huge admirer of Booker T. Washington.

When Garvey returned to Jamaica in 1914, he would form the United Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A), a Pan-Africanist organization.

On March 23,1916, Garvey would arrive in the United States, his goal was to raise money doing lectures to help build a school in Jamaica, modeled after Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee Institute. When Garvey first arrived in New York, he found a job as a printer. On May 9, 1916, Garvey would perform his first of many public lectures, eventually Garvey would go on a 38 state speaking tour.

In May 1917, Garvey and his 13 associates would form the United States’s branch of the U.N.I.A, and soon began to preach economic and social freedom for people of African descent, both living inside and outside of Africa.

In 1918 Garvey began to publish the Negro World Newspaper, the paper had a dual objective, to educate black people on News and events, in their community and  and to help spread the message of the U.N.I.A and grow its membership.

UNIAandACL

By June 1919, the U.N.I.A’s membership had grown to a massive two million members. That same year the U.N.I.A’s incorporated the Black Star Line of Delaware and bought their first ship.

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That same year, a assistant district attorney in New York,  named Edwin P. Kilroe began investigating Garvey and the U.N.I.A,  but no illegal acts could could be uncovered, so no charges were filed. But that would only be the beginning of a bitter relationship between Garvey and Kilroe. On October 14, 1919, a man named George Tyler, attempted to Assassinate Garvey,  he shot at Garvey four times and wounded him in his right leg and the upper part of his head. George Tyler claimed A.D.A Edwin P. Kilroe sent him,  but before his arraignment,  George Tyler allegedly jumped from the third floor of a Harlem jail and committed suicide.

Later  Garvey would create the Negro Factories Corporations,  he developed the business with the intentions to manufacture everyday commodities,  Garvey planned to have NFC branches in the United States,  Central America, West Indies and Africa.

In 1919 J. Edgar Hoover,  then a special Assistant to the Attorney General and the head of the General Investigative Division of the Bureau of Investigation,  later to be renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),  would open an investigation into the activities of Garvey and the U.N.I.A organization. The bureau hired its first five black agents to infiltrate Garvey’s movement. The aim was to find a reason to deport Garvey and to sabotage his U.N.I.A movement.  Eventually they would charge Garvey on mail fraud in connections with stock of the Black Star Line,  the accusations were that even though Garvey was in the process of buying the steamship on the BSL brochure,  he did not own it at the time he placed it on the brochure,  therefore it was in the court’s eyes it was fraud and he was convicted and sentenced to five years on June 23, 1923.

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After prison,  Garvey would continue his work for the black race, while based outside of the United States,  in 1928 Garvey traveled to Geneva to present the “Petition of the Negro Race”, to the League of Nations  (the precursor of the United Nations ), in that petition he outlined the abuse of people of African descent by western nations.

In September of 1929, Garvey would found Jamaica’s first modern political party,  the People’s Political Party (PPP), its objective were to improve education,  help end poverty  and improve  workers’  rights for black people living in  Jamaica.

In 1935 Garvey left the Island of Jamaica for London, England,  he would live there until his death on June 10, 1940, Garvey died at the age of 52, after suffering  two strokes.

Legacy :

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. would influence future civil rights leaders like Malcolm X,  Martin Luther King Jr. , and the first  President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah.

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The Rastafari consider Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. to be a religious prophet.

The plaque outside of the home he died at.

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Blue plaque, 53 Talgarth Road, London

WATCH THIS MINI BIOGRAPHY ON MARCUS GARVEY:

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW:

http://www.biography.com/people/marcus-garvey-9307319

&

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Garvey

BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : HARRIET TUBMAN! ( AFRICAN-AMERICAN MOSES)

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BY:LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Harriet Tubman was born Araminta “Minty” Ross , sometime around 1822 (being a slave, the exact year of her birth is unknown ), in Dorchester County, Maryland, to parents Harriet “Rit” Green and Ben Ross, later in life, Tubman would take her mother’s name of Harriet.

As a young girl in Maryland, Tubman was beaten on countless occasions by her masters. On one occasion she was hit in the head with a heavy metal weight. The result would be an injury that would cause her to have epileptic seizures and headaches for the rest of her life. She even began to have visions, Tubman being a devout Christian believed those visions to be signs from God.

Around the year 1844, Harriet still a slave would marry a freeman named John Tubman. In Maryland at the time, marriages between enslaved people and free blacks were not uncommon.

On September 17, 1849, Tubman would escape from slavery with her two brothers Ben and Henry, but Tubman would be forced to return when her brothers changed their minds about running away. But Tubman would not stay with her masters for long, she would escape again, this time without her brothers, she used the help of the Underground Railroad, which was a network that consisted of enslaved blacks, freemen , Quakers and white abolitionists, all with the common goal of setting enslaved blacks free.

Once free and settled in Philadelphia, Tubman would go back in the slave states, putting both her freedom and life at risk, to save not only family members , but many other blacks still held in bondage. It is estimated that Tubman made 19 trips using the Underground Railroad to save approximately 300 black slaves.

During the civil war, Tubman would work for the union army , she helped nurse wounded soldiers back to health and even performed duties as a armed scout and spy.

After the war was over and black people were free, at least on paper, Tubman would begin to fight for women’s rights with the suffragist movement.

Sadly on March 20, 1913, in Auburn, New York, at the age of 91, Harriet Tubman would die of pneumonia. Tubman would be buried at Fort Hill Cemetery in Auburn. She was given semi-military honors for her service during the American civil war.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WATCH THIS SHORT VIDEO :

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE SOURCE LINKS BELOW :

http://www.harriet-tubman.org/facts-kids/

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman

ANTI-ISLAM RALLY BECOMES VIOLENT IN GERMANY! (ARTICLE)

BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

On Saturday riot police were called in when approximately 1,300 far-right protesters, (who were protesting against muslim asylum seekers and the New Years Eve attacks on women ) became violent.

The recent German anger stems from the German government deciding to open its doors to 1.1 million asylum seekers, who are mainly from the muslim world and the recent New Years Eve attack on several German women, where several women were allegedly robbed and molested by men mainly from the muslim world.

The protest was organized by the far-right Anti-Islam P.E.G.I.D.A ( Patriotic Europeans against Islamization of the West) movement.

Allegedly some protesters bore tattoos of Germany nationalistic symbols.

According to Al Jezeera :

“Earlier in the week, German federal police said they had identified 32 people who were suspected of playing a role in the attacks on women on Cologne, 22 of whom were in the process of seeking asylum in Germany.

They documented 76 criminal acts, most of them involving some form of theft, and seven linked to sexual molestation.

Of the suspects, nine were Algerian, eight Moroccan, five Iranian and four Syrian. Three German citizens, an Iraqi, a Serb and a U.S. citizen were also identified.”

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW :

http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2016/1/9/germanys-merkel-toughens-tone-on-refugees-amid-competing-protests1.html

BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : EMMETT TILL!

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Emmett Louis Till was born on July 25, 1941 in Chicago, Illinois, he was the son of Mamie Carthan and Louis Till. In the late summer of 1955, while visiting family in Money, Mississippi, he allegedly made the unfortunate mistake of being an African-American male and flirting with a 21 year old white woman (Carolyn Bryant ) while on vacation in the segregated south.

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ROY ON THE LEFT, J.W. ON THE RIGHT.

A few nights later, Bryant’s husband Roy and his half-brother J.W. Milam broke into the house of Till’s uncle and kidnapped the teenage boy.

A few days later Till’s body was recovered from the Tallahatchie river, shot and mutilated.

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Till’s body was returned to Chicago, where his mother insisted on giving him a public funeral and an open casket to show the brutality of his lynching.

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On September 1955, both Bryant and Milan were acquitted of the kidnapping and death of Emmett Till.

Bryant and Milam would publicly admit to the kidnapping and brutal murder of Till in Look Magazine, but because of the double Jeopardy law, they could not be recharged for the crime.

HIS LEGACY :

MYRLIE EVERS, the widow of civil rights activist Medgar Evers stated:

“Somehow [Till’s death and trial] struck a spark of indignation that ignited protests around the world… It was the murder of this 14-year-old out-of-state visitor that touched off a world-wide clamor and cast the glare of a world spotlight on Mississippi’s racism.”

WATCH SHORT BIOGRAPHY FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION :

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW :

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emmett_Till