BY: Leon Kwasi Kuntuo-Asare
Elizabeth Freeman (also known as Bett or Mumbett), was born a slave in 1744 in colonial America ( Claverack, Province of New York).
As a young child-slave at her master John Ashley’s house in Massachusetts , Freeman would sometimes overhear discussions about possible American freedom from the British. Those discussions combined with her own desire to be free, gave Freeman even more inspiration to run away from her brutal masters.
When the American Revolutionary War was finally won by America, Freeman believed that she should also be free. Freeman and her abolitionist lawyer Theodore Sedgwick, would sue the Ashley family for her freedom.
In 1781, the case would go to trial and eventually, the Massachusetts supreme court would side with Freeman, claiming slavery was against the Massachusetts Constitution. That decision would Utimately, end slavery in the state of Massachusetts altogether. Freeman would be awarded 30 shillings as compensation for her labor.
All men are born free and equal, and have certain natural, essential, and unalienable rights; among which may be reckoned the right of enjoying and defending their lives and liberties; that of acquiring, possessing, and protecting property; in fine, that of seeking and obtaining their safety and happiness.
– Massachusetts Constitution, Article 1.
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Timbuktu (pron.: /ˌtɪmbʌkˈtuː/), also spelled as Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tamazight:ⵜⵉⵏⴱⵓⴽⵜⵓ (Tinbuktu); French: Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is a historical and still-inhabited city in the West African nation of Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.
Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.
The invaders established a new ruling class, the Arma, who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over, during which it was a major learning and cultural center of the Mali empire, and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.
In its Golden Age, the town’s numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city’s reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place. Timbuktu was also renowned for being the living quarters of Mansa Musa.
NOTES FROM WIKIPEDIA :
PICTURES OF TIMBUKTU :
BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE
When most people think of Saudi Arabia, they might think Islamic kingdom, oil rich country, or even lavish spending royal princes. But there is another Saudi Arabia rarely seen, in that’s the poverty stricken Saudi Arabia . But with the international recession and the price of oil down, nearly a quarter of the population is living at or below the poverty line.
DON’T BOTHER GIVING ME A NATIONAL LANGUAGE
IF IT’S NOT THE LANGUAGE OF TWI, THE LANGUAGE OF OUR FOREFATHERS
KWAME NKRUMAH, JERRY RAWLINGS, OSEI TUTU, 1 AND 2
THAT’S THE ONLY LANGUAGE I WANT TO HEAR BEING SPOKEN TO THE GHANAIAN YOUTH
NOT THE LANGUAGE OF OUR INVADERS AND ENSLAVERS!
LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE
AMERICA :DIVIDED WE STAND? !
VOLUME #2 : POETRY OF WE THE FORGOTTEN PEOPLE!
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