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Timbuktu (pron.: /ˌtΙͺmbʌkˈtuː/), also spelled as Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tamazight:β΅œβ΅‰β΅β΄±β΅“β΄½β΅œβ΅“ (Tinbuktu); French: Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is a historical and still-inhabited city in the West African nation of Mali, situated 20 km (12 mi) north of the River Niger on the southern edge of the Sahara Desert. The town is the capital of the Timbuktu Region, one of the eight administrative regions of Mali. It had a population of 54,453 in the 2009 census.

Starting out as a seasonal settlement, Timbuktu became a permanent settlement early in the 12th century. After a shift in trading routes, Timbuktu flourished from the trade in salt, gold, ivory and slaves. It became part of the Mali Empire early in the 14th century. In the first half of the 15th century the Tuareg tribes took control of the city for a short period until the expanding Songhai Empire absorbed the city in 1468. A Moroccan army defeated the Songhai in 1591, and made Timbuktu, rather than Gao, their capital.

The invaders established a new ruling class, the Arma, who after 1612 became virtually independent of Morocco. However, the golden age of the city was over, during which it was a major learning and cultural center of the Mali empire, and it entered a long period of decline. Different tribes governed until the French took over in 1893, a situation that lasted until it became part of the current Republic of Mali in 1960. Presently, Timbuktu is impoverished and suffers from desertification.

In its Golden Age, the town’s numerous Islamic scholars and extensive trading network made possible an important book trade: together with the campuses of the Sankore Madrasah, an Islamic university, this established Timbuktu as a scholarly centre in Africa. Several notable historic writers, such as Shabeni and Leo Africanus, have described Timbuktu. These stories fueled speculation in Europe, where the city’s reputation shifted from being extremely rich to being mysterious. This reputation overshadows the town itself in modern times, to the point where it is best known in Western culture as an expression for a distant or outlandish place. Timbuktu was also renowned for being the living quarters of Mansa Musa.






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Black people stop complaining about the movie “Exodus: Gods and Kings” being racist, with its all white lead casts playing egyptains, in a time before the arab/muslim invasion, military conquest and eventual Arabization/ethnic cleansing of Egypt and the rest of North and parts of East Africa.

Yes my black people our complaints maybe valid, the film seems to be no more than cinematic bigotry, that would make a Nazi propaganda officer jealous. The whites in the film play Gods and royals, while the black supporting cast members, are limited to playing roles of lower class civilians, criminals and servants.

But what are we the African-American community going to do about? That is the issue! Yes historically whenever we as a community have gotten on the same page and started to think progressively and attempted to move forward, we were either destroyed like the blacks in Black wallstreet ( the successful black part of Tulsa, Oklahoma) in the 1920s or sabotaged like the black power movement of the 1960s was by the FBI’s counter intelligence program (cointelpro) , under the supervision of white supremacist J. Edgar Hoover.

Yes times have changed, yet the government is still spying on we the people , today with the NSA spying program, the same way they did with the counter intelligence program of yesterday, and not to mention the way the Ferguson protestors were originally treated, looked like a vintage film of the racist police force in Birmingham, Alabama treated Martin luther King and his followers in 1963.

Even though the things just previously mentioned are historic facts, a lot has improved for the African-American community as a people, and I am not talking about the election of the first African-american president Barack Obama, who has done a lot to improve the situation of huge banks, and the lives of the white LGBT community and illegal immigrants of Latin America, and has literally done nothing for the disenfranchised blacks of this country, but that’s another essay for another day.

What we have today is what previous generations lacked, and that is direct access to media. Like the young revolutionaries of the Arab spring movement, that was organized on social media, that began in 2010 and topled several middle eastern and North African regimes.

No longer do we have to be beholden to mega corporations like Fox media, Viacom and Time Warner, if we want our stories to be told. with the technology of today, each of us can create our own radio stations with podcasts, we can make our own news media with our own news blog sites that can be easily created using WordPress or Squarespace, we can publish our own history in our own words with ebooks. We can organize mass protests with social media sites like Twitter, Facebook and Meetup. We can also produce our own movies with crowd funding from websites like indiegogo or Kickstarter.

Summary: instead of complaining to the white supremacist entertainment industry to make factual movies about our history, we need to make our own films and we have to put an end to that slave crab in a barrel mentality and support our own people, the same way every other group does. Don’t expect a person or group of people (white people) to do something, you’re not willing to do yourself, especially if they’re the one that put you in the situation in the first place.