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activism 1

BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT: THE FREEDOM RIDERS!

BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

The Freedom Rider were a collective of civil rights activists, who
In May 1961, ventured into the deep south, to challenge unconstitutional Jim Crow laws in the southern region of the United States.

On 1960 the Supreme Court’s decision in the Boynton vs. Virginia case, ruled that segregated buses were unconstitutional, but the segregated South refused to comply with federal law and the federal government did very little to enforce their decision in the South.

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The Freedom Riders risked not only their freedom, but their lives to challenge racist laws that did not allow mixed racial groups to sit together on interstate buses or trains in the South.

The violent reactions the Freedom Riders, received in southern states like Alabama, where the police allowed the Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist mobs to brutalize civil rights activists, got nationwide attention and helped give the civil rights movement credibility.

On November 1, 1961, new policies went into effect, people were now allowed to sit where ever they pleased, regardless of race, while riding on interstate buses and trains. Also “White” and “Colored” signs were removed from terminals.

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The legacy the Freedom Riders leave behind is they helped inspire future civil rights campaigns like Freedom Schools, the Black Power Movement and voter registration in the South.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_Riders

activism 2

BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : ANGELA DAVIS!

BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Angela Yvone Davis was born on January 26, 1944, in Birmingham, Alabama.

Angela’s family lived in an area nicknamed “Dynamite Hill”, it was an a neighborhood where domestic white supremacist terrorist attacks against the rising black middle-class, who fought against segregation were frequent and more often than not, ignored by local law enforcement . In an article published on npr.org, on July 6, 2013, Birmingham historian Horace Huntley states:

“There were 40 plus bombings that took place in Birmingham between the late 40’s and mid 60’s, forty-some unsolved bombings.”

As a child, Davis would attend Carrie A. Tuggle elementary school, a school that was racially segregated. By her junior year in high school, Davis applied and was accepted into the American Friends Service Committee Program, a program that took black students from the segregated south and placed them in schools in the integrated north. Davis decided to attend Elisabeth Irwin high school in the Greenwich Village.

After high school, Davis would be awarded a scholarship to Brandeis University, in Massachusetts, where she was only one of three black freshman. After she graduated Brandeis University, she would attend the University of Frankfurt (in Frankfurt, Germany ) for graduate work in philosophy.

After returning to the United States to be a professor at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Davis would earn a reputation on campus as being a civil rights activists and radical feminists. Davis was also a member of the Communist Party USA and was an associate of the Black Panther Party.

In 1969, then-Governor of California, Ronald Reagan would put pressure on the Board of Regents at the University of California to fire Davis because of her communist party ties.

In 1970 Davis was charged, but later acquitted of Federal charges of conspiracy, when armed-men took over a Marin County, California courtroom, which resulted in four people being killed, when alleged associates of hers , used weapons she bought earlier, to commit the hostile the takeover.

After her acquittal, Davis would visit Cuba, where she received a warm reception from the Afro-Cuban population, Davis reportedly said she believed Cuba to be racism free.

In July, 1979, Davis would visit Moscow, Soviet Union and would be presented the Lenin Peace Prize, from the communist government.

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In recent years Davis has written several books, co-founded Critical resistance, a national grassroots organization dedicated to building a movement to abolish the prison industrial complex and has lectured at many top Universities, including San Francisco State University, Stanford University, Brown University, Rutgers University and many other Universities.

A 2014 INTERVIEW WITH ANGELA DAVIS ON DEMOCRACY NOW , SPEAKING ABOUT PRISON ABOLITION, THE WAR ON DRUGS AND WHY SOCIAL MOVEMENTS SHOULDN’T WAIT FOR OBAMA:

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINKS BELOW :

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angela_Davis

http://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/07/06/197342590/remembering-birminghams-dynamite-hill-neighborhood

african diaspora 4

BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : HARRIET TUBMAN! ( AFRICAN-AMERICAN MOSES)

BY:LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Harriet Tubman was born Araminta “Minty” Ross , sometime around 1822 (being a slave, the exact year of her birth is unknown ), in Dorchester County, Maryland, to parents Harriet “Rit” Green and Ben Ross, later in life, Tubman would take her mother’s name of Harriet.

As a young girl in Maryland, Tubman was beaten on countless occasions by her masters. On one occasion she was hit in the head with a heavy metal weight. The result would be an injury that would cause her to have epileptic seizures and headaches for the rest of her life. She even began to have visions, Tubman being a devout Christian believed those visions to be signs from God.

Around the year 1844, Harriet still a slave would marry a freeman named John Tubman. In Maryland at the time, marriages between enslaved people and free blacks were not uncommon.

On September 17, 1849, Tubman would escape from slavery with her two brothers Ben and Henry, but Tubman would be forced to return when her brothers changed their minds about running away. But Tubman would not stay with her masters for long, she would escape again, this time without her brothers, she used the help of the Underground Railroad, which was a network that consisted of enslaved blacks, freemen , Quakers and white abolitionists, all with the common goal of setting enslaved blacks free.

Once free and settled in Philadelphia, Tubman would go back in the slave states, putting both her freedom and life at risk, to save not only family members , but many other blacks still held in bondage. It is estimated that Tubman made 19 trips using the Underground Railroad to save approximately 300 black slaves.

During the civil war, Tubman would work for the union army , she helped nurse wounded soldiers back to health and even performed duties as a armed scout and spy.

After the war was over and black people were free, at least on paper, Tubman would begin to fight for women’s rights with the suffragist movement.

Sadly on March 20, 1913, in Auburn, New York, at the age of 91, Harriet Tubman would die of pneumonia. Tubman would be buried at Fort Hill Cemetery in Auburn. She was given semi-military honors for her service during the American civil war.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION WATCH THIS SHORT VIDEO :

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE SOURCE LINKS BELOW :

http://www.harriet-tubman.org/facts-kids/

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harriet_Tubman

african diaspora 3

BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : RUBY BRIDGES!

BY:LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

On September 8, 1954, Ruby Nell Bridges was born in Tylertown, Mississippi, to parents Lucille and Abon Bridges. At the age of four, her family would move to New Orleans, Louisiana.

When Ruby was six, her parents accepted a request by the N.A.A.C.P to allow Ruby to participate in a program to integrate New Orleans schools.

On November 14 1960, despite massive southern white racist backlash, Ruby Bridges would integrate William Frantz Elementary school. At the age of six, she would become the public face of desegregation in New Orleans, Louisiana.

FOR EVEN MORE INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW :

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ruby_Bridges