BLACK 🌍 HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : MARCUS MOSIAH GARVEY JR.

 

GARVEY SUIT

BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr., was born on August 17, 1887, in St.Ann’s Bay , Jamaica , to Sarah Jane Richards and Marcus Mosiah Garvey Sr., he was the youngest of eleven children, but only Marcus and his sister Indiana would survive to adulthood.

Garvey’s father owned a massive personal library, it was from this library where a young Garvey would first be educated. The young Garvey would continue his early education at some of St.Ann’s Bay elementary schools, it would be at those schools, Garvey would experience racism for the first time in his life.

In 1907, while working in the printing industry, Garvey would get his first taste of political activism, when he took part in a printer’s strike, the strike was  not a success , but it sparked his interest in politics and activism.

In 1910, Garvey would leave Jamaica and travel throughout central America, first working as a timekeeper on a banana plantation in Costa Rica, Garvey would move on to work as an editor for a newspaper called La Nacionale  and then later that year in 1911, Garvey would move to Panama, where he edited a biweekly Newspaper.

Garvey would return to Jamaica in 1912.

From 1912 to 1914, Garvey would live in London, England , where he would attend Birkbeck College and take classes philosophy and law classes. Garvey would also work for the African Times and Orient Review, published by Duse Mohamed Ali. Garvey would also be influenced by many civil rights activists of his time and was a huge admirer of Booker T. Washington.

When Garvey returned to Jamaica in 1914, he would form the United Negro Improvement Association (U.N.I.A), a Pan-Africanist organization.

On March 23,1916, Garvey would arrive in the United States, his goal was to raise money doing lectures to help build a school in Jamaica, modeled after Booker T. Washington’s Tuskegee Institute. When Garvey first arrived in New York, he found a job as a printer. On May 9, 1916, Garvey would perform his first of many public lectures, eventually Garvey would go on a 38 state speaking tour.

In May 1917, Garvey and his 13 associates would form the United States’s branch of the U.N.I.A, and soon began to preach economic and social freedom for people of African descent, both living inside and outside of Africa.

In 1918 Garvey began to publish the Negro World Newspaper, the paper had a dual objective, to educate black people on News and events, in their community and  and to help spread the message of the U.N.I.A and grow its membership.

UNIAandACL

By June 1919, the U.N.I.A’s membership had grown to a massive two million members. That same year the U.N.I.A’s incorporated the Black Star Line of Delaware and bought their first ship.

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That same year, a assistant district attorney in New York,  named Edwin P. Kilroe began investigating Garvey and the U.N.I.A,  but no illegal acts could could be uncovered, so no charges were filed. But that would only be the beginning of a bitter relationship between Garvey and Kilroe. On October 14, 1919, a man named George Tyler, attempted to Assassinate Garvey,  he shot at Garvey four times and wounded him in his right leg and the upper part of his head. George Tyler claimed A.D.A Edwin P. Kilroe sent him,  but before his arraignment,  George Tyler allegedly jumped from the third floor of a Harlem jail and committed suicide.

Later  Garvey would create the Negro Factories Corporations,  he developed the business with the intentions to manufacture everyday commodities,  Garvey planned to have NFC branches in the United States,  Central America, West Indies and Africa.

In 1919 J. Edgar Hoover,  then a special Assistant to the Attorney General and the head of the General Investigative Division of the Bureau of Investigation,  later to be renamed the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),  would open an investigation into the activities of Garvey and the U.N.I.A organization. The bureau hired its first five black agents to infiltrate Garvey’s movement. The aim was to find a reason to deport Garvey and to sabotage his U.N.I.A movement.  Eventually they would charge Garvey on mail fraud in connections with stock of the Black Star Line,  the accusations were that even though Garvey was in the process of buying the steamship on the BSL brochure,  he did not own it at the time he placed it on the brochure,  therefore it was in the court’s eyes it was fraud and he was convicted and sentenced to five years on June 23, 1923.

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After prison,  Garvey would continue his work for the black race, while based outside of the United States,  in 1928 Garvey traveled to Geneva to present the “Petition of the Negro Race”, to the League of Nations  (the precursor of the United Nations ), in that petition he outlined the abuse of people of African descent by western nations.

In September of 1929, Garvey would found Jamaica’s first modern political party,  the People’s Political Party (PPP), its objective were to improve education,  help end poverty  and improve  workers’  rights for black people living in  Jamaica.

In 1935 Garvey left the Island of Jamaica for London, England,  he would live there until his death on June 10, 1940, Garvey died at the age of 52, after suffering  two strokes.

Legacy :

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. would influence future civil rights leaders like Malcolm X,  Martin Luther King Jr. , and the first  President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah.

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The Rastafari consider Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. to be a religious prophet.

The plaque outside of the home he died at.

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Blue plaque, 53 Talgarth Road, London

WATCH THIS MINI BIOGRAPHY ON MARCUS GARVEY:

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW:

http://www.biography.com/people/marcus-garvey-9307319

&

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Garvey

BLACK 🌍 HISTORY SPOTLIGHT : KWAME NKRUMAH! ( AFRICA’S ⭐ BLACK STAR )

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Kwame Nkrumah was born in Nkroful, Gold Coast , in 1909. Nkrumah’s mother sent him to a Catholic mission , elementary school, in the small town of half Assini. By 1925 Nkrumah was baptised in the Catholic faith. That same year Nkrumah, a brilliant student was noticed by a reverend named Alec Fraser, who was a principal at the Government Training College, there he met Kwegyir Aggrey, a headmaster educated at Columbia University. Aggrey would mentor Nkrumah and educate him on the works of Jamaican Pan-Africanist Marcus Garvey and American civil rights activist W.E.B Du Bois.

After graduating in 1930, Nkrumah would get a teaching position at a Catholic primary school, in Elima , he would later be named headmaster of a school in Axim. In 1933, while still in Axim, he began to get involved in politics and created the Nzima Literary Society. During that sametime Nkrumah would also befriend future Nigerian President Nnamdi Azikiwe, who would influence Nkrumah’s belief in black African nationalism.

In 1935, Nkrumah would move to the United States to further his education, eventually earning a scholarship at Lincoln College, he would work as a dishwasher to pay his bills. In 1939 ,Nkrumah earned a degree in economics and sociology. Lincoln would later name Nkrumah an assistant lecturer of philosophy. That same year in 1939, Nkrumah would enroll both at Lincoln’s seminary and Ivy League University of Pennsylvania. He earned a Bachelor’s of Theology in 1942 and the next year earned both a Masters of arts degree in Philosophy and a Master of Science in Education, from Penn.

During his summer breaks, Nkrumah would go to Harlem, where he would converse on black thought and get involved in the community.

In 1944, Nkrumah would begin to get involved in activism, he would created the African students Association of America and Canada, with fellow expatriates from Africa. Nkrumah would also play a big role in the Pan-African conference in 1944, held in New York.

In 1945, Nkrumah would move to London, while there, he spent his time doing political organizing, and would help organize the fifth Pan-African congress, that was held in Manchester, United Kingdom.

In 1946 the Gold Coast constitution gave Africans a majority on the Legislative Council for the first time in history. Many Africans in the Gold Coast Colony, saw this as the first process towards independence. This prompted several successful African Businessmen to form their own political party, the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC), their aim was to gain independence from Great Britain as soon as possible, since most of the UGCC members were successful businessmen and very busy, they looked for someone to run the party. Kwame Nkrumah, he had just returned home to the Gold Coast was suggested by Ako Adjei, Nkrumah would accept the position, because it gave him political opportunities and connections , he otherwise would not have.

In 1948 there was nationwide dissatisfaction on how the British controlled colony was run, due to inflation caused by World War 2, people were angry over high prices for goods, which helped lead to a boycott of Arab owned stores. Also there were tens of thousands of ex-service men who returned and were having a hard time obtaining jobs,and the Colonial authorities did little to remedy the situation. On February 28, 1948 , Nkrumah led a demonstration, which was to end with Nkrumah giving a petition to the Colonial Governor of the Gold Coast. Soon after the demonstrations began, the British began to shoot at the protesters, which would ultimately led to riots in Accra, which would spread throughout the colony . The British government assumed that the UGCC was responsible and six of its top leaders, including Nkrumah were arrested. In April 1948 after several protests by supporters demanding their release and a plot a storm the prison was discovered, all the UGCC members were freed, by the authorities.

With growing pressure from his supporters to start his own political party and with increasing conflict within the UGCC, on June 12, 1949, Nkrumah announced the formation of the Convention People’s Party (CPP). CPP staff members drove all over the country to gain support for Nkrumah, from all walks of life, from poor farmers to successful business people, these campaigns were very successful and contrary to the strategy of his rivals, who focused mainly on the Urban intelligentsia.

Nkrumah called for unions in Ghana to have a general strike, when it was discovered, that the British selected a commission of elitist Africans, including some UGCC members to draft a new constitution, that would give The Gold Coast more powers to be self-governed , but not full independence. The strike would eventually led to violence and on January 1950, Nkrumah and several CPP members would be arrested. Nkrumah would be sent to prison, in Nkrumah’s absence, his assistant, Komla Agebeli Gbedeman, would continue to run the CPP, and grow its national appeal.

In the universal Legislative election, the first universal Franchise election to be held in colonial Africa, Nkrumah’s cpp party tool 34 of the 38 seats available, Nkrumah was elected by his Accra Constituency. Nkrumah would face many issues,when took office, he was a virgin in government politics, he also had to find a way to unite the four major regions, that were once four very distinct colonies, and some how find a way to forge them unified country.

Before the CPP took complete control of the government, Nkrumah and the British agreed on a joint five year plan to improve infrastructure in the nation. Nkrumah’s official title was Leader of Government Business in a cabinet, but when the British Governor left the cabinet, Nkrumah became the Prime Minister. In July of 1956 an election was held and the results were the same as the previous election, and on August 3, the Assembly voted for full independence. In September, the British Colonial office announced independence would be granted on March 6, 1957.

KWAME NKRUMAH’S GHANA INDEPENDENCE SPEECH MARCH 6, 1957 IN ACCRA.

Nkrumah would serve as President of the newly formed independent nation of Ghana from 1957-1966. During those years Nkrumah sought to end Tribalism, improve civil service, education and promote Pan-Africanism throughout the continent of Africa, which consisted of Nkrumah creating several International organizations to build unity on the world’s 2nd largest continent.

Despite Nkrumah’s good deeds, the longer he was in office, the more he began to act like more a dictator, he had the constitution amended to give himself the power to have any judge removed, he also proposed an amendment, that was passed, that made the CPP, the only legal party in Ghana. Nkrumah created a Ghana news agency and consolidated state control over newspapers.

During the time of independence, Ghana was one of Africa’s wealthiest, with railways, schools, social security, hospitals, a thriving cocoa industry and good economy. But Nkrumah’s desire to rapidly industrialize Ghana, put Ghana in debt.

With Nkrumah’s popularity levels going down both nationally and internationally, and a with decreasing economy, on February 1966, While on a tour to China and North Vietnam, Nkrumah’s government was overthrown by a military coup, that was led by Emmanuel Kwasi Kotoka and the National Liberation Council. It was later revealed that the CIA took part in the coup. In 1978, John Stockwell, the former Chief of the CIA’s Angola task force wrote :

” inside CIA headquarters the Accra station was given full, if unofficial credit for the eventual coup……None of this was adequately reflected in the agency’s written records.”

Nkrumah would never return to Ghana, but continued to fight for a united Africa. While in exile he lived in Conakry, Guinea, as a guest of President Ahmed Sekou Toure, he was given the title of honorary Co – President of Guinea. Even in exile Nkrumah always feared for his life from Western intelligence agencies. One of Nkrumah’s cook’s died suddenly and mysteriously and Nkrumah feared he would be poisoned. In bad health Nkrumah flew to Bucharest, Romania to receive medical treatment in August 1971, he would die a few months later of prostate cancer in 1972, he was 62.

Nkrumah’s legacy:

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MEMORIAL TO KWAME NKRUMAH IN ACCRA, GHANA.

In 2000 BBC listeners voted him Africa’s man of the Millennium. And in 2009, late Ghana President John Atta Mills declared on September 21, the 100th anniversary of Nkrumah’s birth to be founders day, statutory holiday in Ghana to celebrate the legacy of Kwame Nkrumah.

DOCUMENTARY ON PRESIDENT KWAME NKRUMAH OF GHANA !

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW :

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kwame_Nkrumah

FROM THE GUTTER TO THE PROMISELAND:(POEM)

THE GUTTER IS WHERE I STAND, THE PROMISE LAND IS WHERE I STRIVE TO BE

WITH A MIND FULL OF HOPES AND DREAMS

THAT I WANT TO MAKE REAL AND NOT JUST FANTASY

MY FOREFATHERS MARTIN LUTHER KING JR., MALCOLM X, KWAME NKRUMAH AND JERRY RAWLINGS, DECADES AGO FOUGHT FOR MY PEOPLE AND ME

BUT ALL I SEE IN THE STREETS IS THUGGERY AND GREED

EVEN IF I CAN’T SAVE ALL MY PEOPLE

I WILL MAKE SURE MY FOUR FATHERS DREAMS LIVE THROUGH ME

WE HAVE COME FROM THE SLAVE HOUSE, THE COLONIAL MASTER’S HOUSE, THE CRACKHOUSE AND NOW THE OBAMA WHITE HOUSE

AND STILL I GET PROFILED BY COPS AND SECURITY WHEN I LEAVE MY HOUSE

EVEN THOUGH I WORK SMART AND STUDY LIKE AN INTELLECTUAL SPARTAN, YET SOCIETY STILL LOOKS AT ME JUST LIKE ANOTHER TRAYVON MARTIN

JUST LOOKING FOR ANOTHER BLACK MAN TO SHOOT, WALKING WHILE BLACK I GUESS WILL BE THEIR EXCUSE!image

-LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE
AMERICA: DIVIDED WE STAND? ! A COLLECTION OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL POETRY
NOW AVAILABLE ON AMAZON KINDLE

MR.EUROPE RAPING MOTHER AFRICA: (POEM)

MR. EUROPE, YOU’RE BACK AT IT, SODOMIZING MOTHER AFRICA ALL OVER AGAIN, LIKE YOU DRANK ALL HER RESOURCES TOO FAST AND NOW HAVE THE HICCUPS

OR AN OIL, GOLD AND DIAMOND THIRSTY DEMON IN A REOCCURRING HORRIFIC DREAM, OR BETTER YET A PIMP THAT CAN’T LET HIS HOES GO

I CAN’T SAY FOR SURE BUT ALL I KNOW IS THE WORLD COURT NEEDS TO PUT YOU ON TRIAL FOR COMMITTING WORST CRIMES THAN THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH AND THEIR PRIEST WHO MOONLIGHT AS PEDOPHILES

THERE SHOULD BE NO NEED FOR AN O.J SIMPSON BLOODY GLOVE OR A R. KELLY SEX TAPE

SINCE EVEN THE LATE GREAT RAY CHARLES CAN SEE ALL THE RAPE YOU HAVE COMMITTED TO THE ONCE GORGEOUS BUT STILL BEAUTIFUL CONTINENT OF AFRICA, 200 YEARS AGO TO THE CURRENT DATE!image

-LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE
AMERICA: DIVIDED WE STAND? ! A COLLECTION OF POLITICAL AND SOCIAL POETRY
NOW AVAILABLE ON AMAZON KINDLE