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BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT: TOUSSAINT LOUVERTURE ✊🏿🌍

Black History Spotlight: Toussaint Louverture

Toussaint

By:Leon Kwasi Kuntuo-Asare

Early Life

Toussaint Louverture is believed to of been born on the Breda Plantation at Haut de Cap in Saint-Domingue (modern-day Haiti). The date of his birth is unknown, some say he could of been born on May 20, 1743 other accounts say he was most likeley born on November 1 (All Saints Day). Not much is known about his parents, but biographer John Beard’s historical narrative on Louverture, claims that his grandfather was a man named Gaou Guinou, who was a son of the King of the kingdom of Allada (also known as the kingdom of Ardra). It was a West African kingdom on the Coast of southern Benin. Louverture according
to some accounts was well-educated by his godfather, who was a man named Pierre Baptiste, who was a free-person-of-color (a mixed race person with African ancestry). Some historians believe that his letters reveal that he was well-versed in the languages of French and Creole, and was knowledgeable on the writings of political strategist Machiavelli and stoic philosopher Epictetus. There is also reason to believe he may of received additional education in Catholic schools, thought by Jesuit missionaries. The medical knowledge he acquired is believed to of been a combination of traditional African medicine, combined with techniques that were commonly used by Jesuit hospitals.

Later in Life

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In 1782, Louverture is believed to of married a woman named Suzanne Simone Baptiste, who is believed to of been the daughter of his godfather. Reportedly, Louverture claimed he fathered 16 children, but at the time of his death only three children had outlived him.

“I was born a slave, but nature gave me the soul of a free man”

-Toussaint Louverture

Some records indicate that Louverture probably received his freedom around 1776 and was probably around 33-years-old. Up until the start of the revolution, Louverture is believed to of been a salaried employee of the Breda Plantation and mostly performed duties such as coachman, overseer, slavedriver and looked after the plantation’s livestock. As a free man Louverture started to amass a small fortune of money and property, some accounts say he rented a small coffee plantation, and owned several of his own slaves.

A Revolutionary Life

Toussaint battling against French

In 1789, the Free People of Saint-Domingue, inspired by the French Revolution, desired to increase their rights in the French colony, while at the same time desiring to keep the blacks on the slave colony stripped of any such rights. On August of 1797, a vodoo ceremony at Bois Caiman officially started the slave rebellion in the north of the colony, which held the most black people in forced bondage. According to some scholars, Louverture would not join the revolution until a few weeks into it.He would first send his family to the Spanish colony of Santo Domingo (now the Dominican Republic). He would then join the forces of Georges Biassou as a physician to Biassou’s troops. Some records reveal that Louverture was part of the group’s leadership, and was involved in strategy and negotiated with the Spanish for supplies. He would train his men in guerrilla warfare and the European style of war at the time.

On August 29 1793, he gave his famous declaration of Camp Turrel to the Blacks of St.Domingue:

Brothers and friends, I am Toussaint Louverture; perhaps my name has made itself known to you. I have undertaken vengeance. I want liberty and equality to reign in St.Domingue, I am working to make that happen. Unite yourselves to us, brothers and fight with us for the same cause.

Your very humble and obedient servant, Toussaint Louverture,

General of the armies of the king, for the public good.”

On February 4 1794, the revolutionary government of France proclaimed the abolition of slavery. This came after months of Louverture having diplomatic talks with French general Etienne Maynaud de Bizefranc de Laveaux. This decision would be one of the main reasons that convinced Louverture (who was having issues with the Spanish), to switch his allegiance from the Spanish to the French. He would rally his troops to battle with Laveaux against the Spanish. This decision would cause some of his former allies to turn against him, also now being a French commander, he was now in armed-conflict with the British empire, whose troops landed on the coast of Saint-Domingue in September of that year. In 1798, Louverture was in total command in Saint-Domingue, with the exception of a semi-independent state in the south, which was controlled by general Andre Riguad, a free man of color, who rejected the authority of Louverture. Louverture still continued to fight the British, but on April 30 1798, he signed a treaty with British general, Thomas Maitland. Exchanging withdrawal of British troops for the release and amnesty of French counter-revolutionaries in the area. On August 31, Louverture and Maitland signed another treaty which ended the British blockade on Saint-Domingue, in exchange for a promise that Louverture would not export his black revolution to the British slave colony of Jamaica (which was a major suger producer at the time). The tension between the black Louverture and his Mulatto rival, Riguad began to intensify, eventually leading to a civil war famously-known as the “War of Knives” it lasted about a year. The defeated Riguad would flee to the French overseas region of Guadeloupe.

During the Saint-Domingue civil war, Napoleon Bonaparte took power in France and passed new laws for its French colonies (which still included Saint-Domingue). Louverture thought this could mean a return of slavery, but Bonaparte let Louverture believe that wasn’t the case, but he did not want Louverture and Saint-Domingue to attack Spanish Santo Domingo, a decision that Louverture knew could place in a major defensive position from possible attackers (which could include the French). In January 1801, Louverture against the wishes of Napoleon, invaded Santo Domingo, capturing the governor, Don Garcia, bringing Santo Domingo under French law, which abolished slavey in the region. As the leader of the entire island of Hispaniola, he began to modernize Santo Domingo, which was less developed than its French speaking counter-part. On July 7 1801, he established his authority over the island by having a new constitution created, which named him Governor-General for life, with almost absolute power. Louverture still shied away from officially declaring independence form France, partly because he saw himself as a black Frenchman and partly because he didn’t want to battle France again and possibly lose and have them return slavery to the island. Nonetheless, Bonaparte would eventually send 20,000 French troops to restore French authority and if possible restore slavery. Bonaparte’s troops were under the control of his brother-in-law Charles Emmanuel Leclerc, who had orders to deport all the black officers and to recapture the entire island colony, under diplomatic means if possible. When peaceful negotiations brokedown, both sides started to shoot it out, fighting would last for a few months. Eventually, Louverture would be arrested, deported and imprisoned in France. On April 7, 1803, Louverture would die, some suggest he could of died of malnutrition and or pneumonia.
In his absence Jean-Jacques Dessalines would lead the H revolution, until it was victorious over the French in 1804 and the nation of Haiti was born.

For additional information please use this link

For additional information use this link

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BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT:✊🏿🌍 DENMARK VESEY

Black History Spotlight:Denmark Vesey

Denmark Vesey

By: Leon Kwasi Kuntuo-Asare

Early Life

Denmark Vesey is believed to of been born in 1767 in St.Thomas,West Indies. He was the slave of captain Vesey,who was a slave trader and planter from Charleston, South Carolina. He spent at least two decades sailing with his slave master.

Freedom

In 1800 Vesey was able to purchase his freedom from his master, after he allegedly won a local lottery. Vesey would go into the trade of carpentry, and would become relatively successful.

Legacy

In 1818 Vesey would become a powerful speaker and preacher, he would travel to slave plantations in his local area. Vesey would preach to his fellow black people, (who were suffering horribly in forced bondage), that they would fight for and gain their liberation like the ancient Israelites of the Holy Bible. Vesey, Allegedly held meetings at his home, where he would also collect firearms and other weapons that he intended to use to arm 9000 black people in South Carolina. Unfortunately, Vesey would be betrayed like Jesus Christ, by some of his own people that he intended to free, when some black slaves fearful of white retribution, informed the white authorities. Vesey, would defend himself well in court, but would ultimately be sentenced by a white supremacist jury to be hanged to death. 35 other blacks would be sentenced to hang too, and 35 others would be sold to brutal (even by American standards) West Indian plantations. If not for the betrayal of a few black Judas’s, his rebellion would of been the largest slave revolt in U.S. history. The white fear that was caused because of the failed revolt caused harsher and more punitive laws to be passed to control and dominate black people. In Hampton Park in Charleston, South Carolina, there is a statue dedicated to the memory and legacy of the black freedom fighter.

For more information on Demark Vesey, please use this link

For even more information on Denmark Vesey, please use this 2nd link

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BLACK HISTORY SPOTLIGHT: THE FORMER SLAVE CALLIE HOUSE AND HER FIGHT FOR REPARATIONS

By: Leon Kwasi Kuntuo-Asare

Callie House was born a slave in Rutherford, County, not too far from Nashville, Tennessee . House would get married at the young age of 22. Callie and her husband William House would have six children together, but only 5 of those children would survive. After Callie’s husband William House died, she would financially support herself and her family by being a washerwoman.

Later in life, House and a man named Isaiah H. Dickerson would travel through the former Confederate states that formerly sanctioned the ownership of them and their fellow Black people to gain support for the National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief, Bounty and Pension Association (MRB&PA).

They would have their gatherings in Black churches, because that was one of the only places Black people could somewhat safely come together without being threatened and harrassed by the White supremacist public.

The objective of the organization, which at its peak had hundreds of thousands of members was to provide compensation, mutual aid and to assist in burial costs of those Black people who were formerly enslaved.

The Federal Post Office Department, despite not having any proof would often accuse reparation organizations like the MRB&PA of committing fraud against its members in an effort to discredit the movement and sabotage their progress.

The Department of Justice would open an investigation on the MRB&PA, and they would eventually be forbidden from sending mail or money orders. In 1901, Dickerson would be found guilty of “swindling”, but the conviction would eventually be overturned. When Dickerson died in 1909, House would become the sole-leader of the MRB&PA. Despite interference and harrassment by the federal government and the Post Office Department the MRB&PA would go on for a while. Eventually though, trumped-up charges or not the Federal government would convict House in 1918, effectively ending the MRB&PA and their fight for reparations.

House would die in 1928 at the age of 66 or 67.

Years later her courage would be remembered and honored when in 2015 the African American and Diaspora Program at Vanderbilt University renamed their research center the Callie House Research Center for the Study of Black Cultures and Politics.

For additional information use the link below:

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Callie_House

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8 DISTURBING THINGS TO KNOW ABOUT BEING BLACK IN MODERN DAY EGYPT!

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1. Black Egyptians experience racism daily: the black community in Egypt are deemed “inferior minorities”, subjecting them to varying degrees of racial discrimination and degrading treatment.

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2. Racial discrimination is not criminalized in Egypt : very little is done to take a legal stance against the discrimination that the black Egyptians are subject to on a daily basis.

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3. RACIAL slurs are commonly directed towards black people in public places : the terms ” Chocalata” and “Samara” are often used to refer to those of the black community in Egypt. The word “Zarboon” meaning slave is also used to refer to black people in Egypt.

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4. Black women are often treated as if they are promiscuous : Black Egyptian women are often treated as inferior concubines. In fact, a 2013 government survey determined that 99.3 percent of Egyptian women have been sexually assaulted at one time or another.

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5. Colorism is openly practiced and for the most part, upheld : the degree of racism that black people in Egypt are exposed to often depends on how dark their skin is.

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6. Black Egyptians are often subject to police brutality : black Egyptians receive very little protection from police.

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7. Egyptians media portrays Black people as inferior : Black people in cinema and other media has often historically been either marginal or racist.

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8. Black refugees are second-class citizens : according to a 2013 article released by Al Jezeera, “non-arab”, or black , refugees are forced to overcome very serious problems.

FOR MORE DETAILED INFORMATION USE LINK BELOW :

http://atlantablackstar.com/2015/10/16/8-disturbing-things-know-black-modern-day-egypt/?utm_content=buffer7d810&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer

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RADICAL WHITE SUPREMACY, MORE DANGEROUS TO AMERICANS THAN ISLAMIC TERRORISM! ( ARTICLE )

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Contrary to popular belief in  the United States , the biggest terrorist threat to the safety of the American people, is not islamic extremists like Al Qaeda , ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) or even the dangerous drug cartels of Mexico and Latin America.

The biggest threat to the American public, is and has always been systematic white supremacy and their terrorist militias.

According to The New York Times, approximately twice as many people have been killed by white supremacists and other non-Muslim extremists, than by muslim extremists, since September 11, 2001.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK :

http://news.yahoo.com/statistics-show-white-supremacy-bigger-004327404.html?soc_src=mediacontentsharebuttons&soc_trk=fb

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CALIFORNIA’S GOVERNOR JERRY BROWN SIGNS ANTI-PROFILING BILL! (ARTICLE )

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

According to CBS SF BAY AREA, the governor of California, Jerry Brown last week, signed legislation, changing the definition of racial profiling, in the state.

This will require local police departments to collect demographic on the people they stop.

Over half a dozen states have passed similar legislation, since the shooting and killing of Michael Brown, by Ferguson police officer Darren Wilson last year.

People who support the legislation, say the $9 million annual cost of the program, could help save police departments millions more in expensive settlements, when people are unlawfully killed by law enforcement officers.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK :

http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2015/10/03/governor-brown-signs-anti-racial-profiling-bill/

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2015 U.N SOUTH-SOUTH AWARDS! (ARTICLE )

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BY:LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

On September 26, 2015 the United Nations brought national and business leaders throughout the world to celebrate and encourage black and brown self-reliance and development .

The idea is to empower countries and people of the southern hemisphere, which consists of countries from Africa, Asia, South America, Latin America and Caribbean nations.

Countries who for hundreds of years have been dominated and oppressed economically and politically by western and northern nations.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK :

http://newsone.com/3194734/un-south-south-awards-2015-focus-on-black-self-reliance-in-developing-nations/

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WHITE MAN FIRED FROM JOB AFTER HE POSTED PIC OF HIS CO-WORKERS CHILD AND HIS FRIENDS POSTED EXTREMELY RACIST COMMENTS!

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

A man named Gerod Roth, but known on Facebook as Geris Hilton, was fired after he posted a picture of his co-workers son on Facebook. The outrage came after several of his friends posted extremely racist comments about the young African-American child.

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Mr. Roth was soon fired by Polaris Marketing Group, after the hateful post went viral.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK :

http://newsone.com/3200466/photo-of-white-man-friends-posting-racist-comments-about-black-co-workers-child-goes-viral/

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JAMAICA AND OTHER CARRIBBEAN NATIONS CALL FOR REPARATIONS FROM THEIR FROM THEIR FORMER IMPERIALIST ENSLAVERS! ( ARTICLE )

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Today, Jamaicans are unified in their call for reparations for slavery, the same reparations that were denied to their ancestors but were given to the over forty-six thousand white slave owners, who owned, exploited, raped and brutalized their ancestors.

But Jamaica is not the only Caribbean nation to demand reparations from their former Imperialist enslavers.
Earlier this year in July, 14 Caribbean nations filed lawsuits against their from exploiters of Great Britain, France and the Netherlands, at the international court of justice in the Hague.

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The Prime minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron is set to visit Jamaica, to talk about trade relations and the building of a prison, which will be used to house Jamaicans convicted of crimes, while in the United Kingdom.

Cameron claims he has no plans to discuss reparations for slavery, which is disgusting and hypocritical considering the fact his own family owned slaves on Jamaica, therefore not only did his family receive all the economic benefits that came with slavery, but they also received reparations as slave owners when Great Britain ended slavery in Jamaica.

FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK :

http://atlantablackstar.com/2015/09/30/britain-compensated-46000-slave-owners-but-will-not-pay-slavery-reparations-david-cameron-builds-jamaican-prison-instead/?utm_content=buffer89feb&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer

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GEORGE ZIMMERMAN BACK TO BEING A JACKASS! (ARTICLE )

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BY:LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

Pyschopath and brown/wannabe white supremacist George Zimmerman is apparently back to his loco antics.

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This time retweeting a picture of the teenage boy Trayvon Martin, laying on the floor dead moments after he stalked and killed the high school kid, over three years ago.

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Zimmerman, who has been arrested about half a dozen times, on various charges from assault to murder, still remains free to stalk the streets of Florida , thanks to the biased and racist Florida legal system.

Zimmerman then continued his sick twitter taunting rant.

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FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION USE LINK :

https://www.rt.com/usa/316845-george-zimmerman-retweets-martin-body/

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THE UNITED NATIONS CALLS THE UNITED STATES OUT ON ITS RACIST PRACTICES AND POLICE BRUTALITY ! ( ARTICLE )

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BY: LEON KWASI KUNTUO-ASARE

The United Nations’ Human rights council , recently called the United States of America, out on racial profiling, use of the death penalty and police brutality, during a peer review of 117 United Nations member states.

According to a report by Al Jezeera America, 343 recommendations were given by the United Nations Human rights Council in Geneva, Switzerland, of which the U.S accepted 44 of the recommendations for eliminating racial discrimination and addressing excessive use of force by police.

USE LINK FOR ADDITIONAL INFORMATION :

http://atlantablackstar.com/2015/09/26/un-human-rights-council-blasts-us-racism-police-violence-death-penalty-recommends-changes/